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 栏目类别:学习方法 >> 初中 >> 英语

中考完成句子做题方法和技巧

  中考完成句子题型主要包括句型转换和翻译句子两大类。句型转换主要考查学生对英语句型的掌握程度,是最近几年一些中考试题中的常考题型之一。翻译句子分为两类:一类是根据汉语意思完成英语句子;另一类是将汉语句子直接翻译成英语句子。完成句子主要考查基本句型的用法、动词短语搭配、动词形式的变化以及一些常用短语。下面将结合近几年部分地区的中考真题,就以上题型进行具体分析。

  一、句型转换

  句型转换主要有句式转换、同义句转换、合并句子或语态转换等形式。

  (一)句式转换

  1.肯定句和否定句的相互转换

  陈述句用来陈述一件事或一种看法,包括肯定句和否定句。否定句一般由肯定句中的系动词(be)、助动词或情态动词后接not构成。注意事项:

  (1)在“I think / believe / expect / suppose that +宾语从句”句式中,若宾语从句为否定句,习惯上将否定形式转移到主句上来。

  (2)肯定句中的and在否定句中要改为or;too, also要改为either;some有时要改为any。

  (3)用no, no one, nobody, nothing, neither, none, never等表示否定意义的词也可构成否定句。

  (4) both ... and ... 的否定结构为neither ... nor ...。

  【典例1】(2015年重庆B卷) There are many old people exercising in the park now. (改为否定句)

  There ______ ______ many old people exercising in the park now.

  【解题思路】句中有系动词be,改为否定句时,直接在be后面加not。

  【答案】are not

  【典例2】(2014年乌鲁木齐卷) Both her father and her mother are very pleased with her Chinese. (改为否定句)

  ______ her father ______ her mother is very pleased with her Chinese.

  【解题思路】如果陈述句的主语是由连词both ... and ... 连接,这类句子变为否定句时,不能直接在be动词后加not,而是要把both ... and ... 变为neither ... nor ...。

  【答案】Neither; nor

  2.陈述句改为一般疑问句

  一般疑问句指能用yes或no来回答的疑问句。一般把陈述句中的be动词、助动词或情态动词调到句首,并在句尾加上问号。

  【典例3】(2013年济南卷) She is good at playing the piano. (改为一般疑问句)

  ______ ______ good at playing the piano?

  【解题思路】该陈述句中含有系动词be的第三人称单数形式is,改为一般疑问句时,直接把is调到句首。

  【答案】Is she

  【典例4】(2015年乌鲁木齐卷) I want to go somewhere quiet for my vacation. (改为一般疑问句)

  ______ you want to go ______ quiet for your vacation?

  【解题思路】没有含系动词和情态动词的陈述句,在改为否定句和疑问句时常借用助动词。疑问句的主语是第二人称,故用do引导。somewhere改为anywhere。

  【答案】Do; anywhere

  3.陈述句改为特殊疑问句

  这类题型主要是就画线部分提问。其结构是:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句。特殊疑问词的使用要根据画线部分所指代的情况来确认。比如:对人提问用who / whom(宾格);对地点提问用where;对频率提问用how often;对距离提问用how far;对数量提问用how many / how much;对时间提问用when / what time;对价格提问用how much等。

  【典例5】(2015年济南卷) The supermarket is two miles from the hotel. (就句子画线部分提问)

  ______ ______ is the supermarket from the hotel?

  【解题思路】画线部分“two miles”意为“两英里”,在句中表示距离,因此用how far引导特殊疑问句。

  【答案】How far

  【典例6】(2015年重庆A卷) The English dictionary is 25 dollars. (对画线部分提问)

  ______ ______ is the English dictionary?

  【解题思路】画线部分“25 dollars”表示价格,因此对其提问用how much。

  【答案】How much

  4.陈述句改为选择疑问句

  首先注意的是:不能用yes或no来回答选择疑问句。回答选择疑问句时应根据事实选择一种情况作答。其结构为:一般疑问句+ or +一般疑问句的省略形式。

  【典例7】(2015年绥化卷) My favourite color is green. (用yellow改为选择疑问句)

  ______ your favourite color green ______ yellow?

  【解题思路】陈述句中含有系动词is,改为一般疑问句时,把is调到句首。选择疑问句的构成是由“一般疑问句+ or +一般疑问句的省略形式”。故第二个空填or。

  【答案】Is; or

  5.陈述句改为反意疑问句

  反意疑问句是由陈述句和附加问句两部分构成,表示说话者对自己的看法没有把握,需要对方证实。如果陈述句是肯定句,附加问句是由“be动词/助动词/情态动词+ not(缩写)+人称代词”构成;反之,如果陈述句是否定句,附加问句是由“be动词/助动词/情态动词+人称代词”构成。注意事项:

  (1)陈述句是there be句型,附加问句要用there,不能用人称代词。

  (2)陈述句中含有no, nothing, never, hardly, seldom等表示否定意义的词语时,附加问句用肯定形式。

  (3)Lets引导的祈使句,附加问句用shall we。

  (4)肯定祈使句的附加问句用will you / wont you;否定祈使句的附加问句只能用will you。

  【典例8】(2015年新疆卷) Its a nice day, ______ ______? (完成反意疑问句)

  【解题思路】陈述句是肯定句,附加问句用否定形式。陈述句中含系动词is,其否定形式为isnt。人称代词用it。

  【答案】isnt it

  【典例9】(2014年黔西南卷) Mr. Smith and his wife seldom drive their car to work, ______ ______? (完成反意疑问句)

  【解题思路】陈述句部分含有seldom,表示否定意义,附加问句用肯定形式。主语是Mr. Smith and his wife,用人称代词they替代。

  【答案】do they

  【典例10】(2013年白银卷) There is something wrong with the radio. (改为反意疑问句)

  There is something wrong with the radio, ______ ______?

  【解题思路】陈述句为肯定形式,附加问句用否定形式。该句为there be句型,附加问句要用there。

  【答案】isnt there

  6.陈述句改为感叹句

  感叹句由感叹词what或how引导,其具体结构如下:

  (1)What + a / an + adj. +可数名词的单数形式(+主语+谓语)!

  (2) What + adj. +可数名词的复数形式/不可数名词(+主语+谓语)!

  (3) How + adj. + a / an +可数名词的单数形 式(+主语+谓语)!

  (4) How + adj. / adv.(+主语+谓语)!

  【典例11】(2015年乌鲁木齐卷) The cat made an awful mess in the house. (改为感叹句)

  ______ ______ awful mess the cat made in the house!

  【解题思路】句意为:在这个房子里这只猫弄得多么糟糕啊!修饰名词用what;mess是单数名词,并且awful以元音因素开头,故用an。

  【答案】What an

  【典例12】(2014年安顺卷) It rained heavily yesterday morning. (改为感叹句)

  ______ ______ it rained yesterday morning!

  【解题思路】句意为:昨天上午雨下得多么大啊!修饰形容词用how。该句结构为:How + adj. +主语+谓语!

  【答案】How heavily

  (二)同义句转换

  1.用同义词(短语)替代

  【典例13】(2015年乌鲁木齐卷) The book Journey to the West is mine. (改为同义句)

  The book Journey to the West ______ ______ me.

  【解题思路】原句句意为:这本《西游记》是我的。改写后的句子中空格后面是宾格代词,因此与原句相符的短语应该是belong to,且时态为一般现在时。

  【答案】belongs to

  2.用反义词(短语)替代

  【典例14】(2013年白银卷) They are in different teams. (改为同义句)

  They arent in ______ ______ team.

  【解题思路】原句句意为:他们在不同的小组。改写后的句子为否定形式,由此可知相近意思的句子意为“他们不在同一个小组”。different的反义词为same。

  【答案】the same

  3.用短语替代

  如果原句中含有状语从句、宾语从句等,改写后的句子中可用介词短语或不定式短语等来替代。

  【典例15】(2015年重庆A卷) Linda is leaving for Guangzhou when class is over. (改为同义句)

  Linda is leaving for Guangzhou ______ ______.

  【解题思路】句意为:当放学的时候,琳达动身去广州。when class is over是时间状语从句,相当于介词短语after class。

  【答案】after class

  4. 同义句式的转换

  【典例16】(2015年孝感卷) How about telling stories to cheer up the sick kids? (改为同义句)

  ______ ______ tell stories to cheer up the sick kids?

  【解题思路】原句句意为:讲一些故事使这些生病的孩子振作起来怎么样?How about ...?意为“……怎样?”,是表示建议的句型,相当于What about,Why dont you或Why not等引导的句子。

  【答案】Why not

  (三)合并句子

  1.用并列连词合并简单句

  用并列连词将两个简单句合并为一个新的句子。常用的并列连词有both ... and ..., neither ... nor ..., not only ... but also ..., either ... or ... 等。

  【典例17】(2015年上海卷) I am not good at playing badminton. Gary isnt, either. (合并为一句)

  ______ Gary ______ I am good at playing badminton.

  【解题思路】句意为:我不擅长打羽毛球,加里也不擅长。合并之后,表示“加里和我都不擅长打羽毛球。若表示“两者都不,既不……也不……”,用neither ... nor ...,表达的是否定的意义,注意句首字母要大写。

  【答案】Neither; nor

  2.将从句合并为复合句

  复合句既包括宾语从句、定语从句,也包括状语从句。复习时,要明确三种复合句的构成方式及句式特点。

  【典例18】(2015年南通卷) Jerry was very excited. He could not express himself clearly. (合并为一句)

  Jerry was ______ excited ______ he couldnt express himself clearly.

  【解题思路】前后两个简单句有因果关系,因此我们就能用so ... that ... 把两个简单句合并为一个带有结果状语从句的复合句。

  【答案】so; that

  【典例19】(2015年绥化卷) “Are you doing the dishes?” He asked the lady. (合并为一个句子)

  He asked the lady ______ ______ was doing the dishes.

  【解题思路】本题是要求把两个句子合并为一个含有宾语从句的复合句。主句的时态为一般过去时,从句用相应的过去时态;又因为从句是一般疑问句,引导词必须使用if或whether,从句还要用陈述语序。

  【答案】if she或whether she

  二、翻译句子

  翻译句子就是要求根据汉语句子完成英语,每空填一个单词(有些试题对此没有限制)。在初中阶段,翻译句子是非常重要的题型,包含对词汇、语法、句型、习惯用法等各个方面的考查。完成句子可以反映出学生综合使用英语进行书面交际的能力。下面就翻译句子的解题技巧作一一介绍:

  (一)确定考查对象

  一看到题目,我们首先应该对照汉语,确定考查对象是短语还是句子,是动词短语还是介词或连词等,以便有的放矢。

  【典例1】(2015年淮安卷) 像往常一样,我们放学后步行回家。

  ______, we went back home ______ after school.

  【解题思路】对照汉语部分可知,空格处要填写的是“像往常一样”和“步行”,这两个短语的英文分别是as usual和on foot。

  【答案】As usual; on foot

  【典例2】(2015年荆州卷) 知道了哪些人不友好,就离他们远点。

  If you know what kind of people are unfriendly, just ______ them. (stay)

  【解题思路】根据汉语意思及括号中所给提示可知,要填写的部分的意思是“远离”。英文正确形式为stay away from。

  【答案】stay away from

  (二)根据空格数量确定所填内容

  这类命题在大多数试卷中都明确给予提示,即每空填写一个单词,但是有些试卷只给出一个大空格,并不按照填词数给出对应的空格数量,还有的试卷不给任何英语提示。所填写的内容往往是重要的短语及重要的句型。

  【典例3】(2015年天津卷) 你不在家时,我会照顾孩子们。

  While you are not at home, Ill ______ ______ the children.

  【解题思路】对照汉语部分可知,要填写的是“照顾”的英文形式。表示“照顾”可以用look after,care for或者take care of,而题目限定只填写两个单词,故排除take care of。

  【答案】look after / care for

  【典例4】(2015年烟台卷) 毫无疑问,中国人最了解茶文化。

  ______ ______, the Chinese know about tea culture best.

  【解题思路】对照汉语可知,要翻译的部分意为“毫无疑问”。结合题目给出的两个空格可知应填写两个单词,该短语的正确形式应该是without doubt。因为without位于句首,所以其首字母要大写。

  【答案】Without doubt

  【典例5】他和他的同学在学校一样积极。

  He is _______________ his classmates at school.

  【解题思路】根据汉语提示可知,空格处要填写的内容意为“和……一样”,这是一个重要的句式,其正确的写法是as ... as,中间用形容词或副词原级。

  【答案】as active as

  【典例6】(2015年扬州卷) 你曾经梦想过八小时环游世界吗?

  ___________________________________

  【解题思路】根据汉语提示可看出本句要用到dream of(梦想),around the world(全世界),eight hours(八小时)三个短语,又根据提示词ever(曾经)可知本句用现在完成时。

  【答案】Have you ever dreamed of travelling around the world in eight hours?

  (三)通读整句

  通读整句,确定所填内容是否需要人称、时态或词性等方面的变化。做这类题目时,尤其要考虑根据时态、语态等的不同,动词要发生相应的变化。同时,我们要记一些常用的固定搭配,并注意中英文表达方式的区别。

  【典例7】(2015年广州卷) 根据奶奶的建议,这汤应该煮上两个小时以上。

  The soup ______ ______ ______ for more than two hours according to Grandma.

  【解题思路】根据句意可知,the soup是动作的承受者,因此本句用被动语态;又根据汉语提示中的“应该”可知,本句是考查情态动词的被动语态,其结构为“情态动词+ be +过去分词”。

  【答案】should be cooked

  【典例8】(2015年荆州卷) Look! The children _______________ a story for the picture in the classroom. (make)

  瞧! 孩子们正在教室里根据图片编一个故事。

  【解题思路】根据提示词Look可知,句子的谓语部分应该用现在进行时。make up意为“编造(故事)”。

  【答案】are making up

  巩固练习:

  一、按所给要求完成下列句子。每空一词。

  1. My sister used to like playing the piano. (改为否定句)

  My sister _______ _______ to like playing the piano.

  2. Amy studies maths by working with other students. (对画线部分提问)

  ________ ______ Amy _______ maths?

  3. His parents have decided to stay at home instead of going out. (改为一般疑问句)

  ______ his parents _______ to stay at home instead of going out?

  4. His brother joined the army five years ago. (改为同义句)

  His brother ______ _____ _____ the army ______ five years.

  5. My father left Shanghai a week ago because of his new job. (对画线部分提问)

  ______ did your father ______ Shanghai a week ago?

  6. I felt very tired after walking for three hours. (对画线部分提问)

  _______ ______ you feel after walking for three hours?

  7. Ted hardly goes shopping on Saturdays. (完成反意疑问句)

  Ted hardly goes shopping on Saturdays, ______ ______?

  8. He is too busy to go fishing with you this weekend. (改为复合句)

  He is _____ busy ______ he cant go fishing with you this weekend.

  9. The woman seems to come from Canada. (改为同义句)

  ______ ______ that the woman comes from Canada.

  10. I prefer to watch sports games than watch evening news. (改为同义句)

  I ______ ______ watch sports games than watch evening news.

  11. You should ask your teacher for help if you have a problem. (对画线部分提问)

  _______ _______ I do if I have a problem?

  12. Mr. Wang made his daughter practice the guitar for two hours every day. (改为被动语态)

  Mr. Wangs daughter was _______ ______ practice the guitar for two hours every day.

  13. Who are you waiting for? Could you tell me? (合并为一个句子)

  Could you tell me ______ you ______ waiting for?

  14. They dont make this kind of watch in Beijing. (改为被动语态)

  This kind of watch ______ _______ in Beijing.

  15. The classroom is very clean. (改为感叹句)

  ______ ______ the classroom is!

  二、根据所给汉语提示完成下列英语句子。每空一词。

  1.她还没有长大到能够养活自己。她必须依靠父母。

  She is not old enough to support herself. She has to _______ ______ her parents.

  2.请你为我捡起地板上的书好吗?

  Could you please ______ ______ the book on the floor for me?

  3.昨天谁付的午饭钱,吉尔还是杰克?

  Who ______ _____ the lunch yesterday, Jill or Jack?

  4. 请让那个小女孩振作起来。她看上去很悲伤。

  Please go and ______ ______ the little girl. She looks very sad.

  5. 2000年以来,这个地区发生了很大的变化。

  Great changes have ______ ______ in this area since 2000.

  6.他的父母警告他待在家里。

  His parents ______ him ______ ______ at home.

  7. 根据他说的话,你相信这个人吗?

  ______ ______ what he said, do you believe in him?

  8.我家有很多旧东西,我不知道如何处理。

  Therere many old things in my house; I dont know ______ ______ ______ ______ them.

  9.直到本周结束,我们已经学了200个单词。

  ______ ______ ______ ______ this week, we have learned two hundred words.

  10. 请帮我在字典里查一下这个单词。

  Please help me ______ ______ this word in the dictionary.

  三、请将下列句子翻译成英语。

  1.我们有充足的时间到达火车站。(plenty of)

  ___________________________________

  2.简上个月搬出了这个地方。(move out)

  ___________________________________

  3.那首诗使我回想起我的童年。(think back to)

  ___________________________________

  4.你能把这篇小说翻译成英文吗?(translate ... into)

  ___________________________________

  5.最后,我们被分成了三组。(divide into)

  ___________________________________

  Key:

  一、1. didnt use 2. How does; study 3. Have; decided 4. has been in; for 5. Why; leave 6. How did 7. does he 8. so; that 9. It seems 10. would rather 11. What should 12. made to 13. who; are 14. isnt made 15. How clean

  二、1. depend on 2. pick up 3. paid for 4. cheer up 5. taken place 6. warned; to stay 7. According to 8. how to deal with 9. By the end of 10. look up

  三、1. We have plenty of time to get to the railway station.

  2. Jane moved out the place last month.

  3. That poem makes me think back to my childhood.

  4. Can you translate the novel into English?

  5. Finally / In the end, we are divided into three groups.

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