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 栏目类别:知识点 >> 小学 >> 英语

被动语态

更新时间:2016/7/18 17:26:00  手机版
  • 语态:
    是动词的一种形式,它表示主语和谓语的关系。
    语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。
    如果主语是动作的执行者,或者是说动作是由主语完成的,要用主动语态;
    如果主语是动作的承受者,或者是说动作不是由主语而是由其他人完成的,则用被动语态。
    例:Danny’s head is stuck. 丹尼的头被粘住了。
  • 被动语态的基本结构:
     主语+be +过去分词(+by+动作的发出者)
    ① 一般现在时:am/is/are+过去分词
    如:Trees are planted every year. 
    ② 现在进行时 am/is/are+ being +过去分词
    如:The road is being repaired.  
    ③ 现在完成时 have/has + been +过去分词
    如:The work has been finished. 
    ④ 一般过去时 was/were + 过去分词
    如:The story was told by him. 
    Many birds were killed last year. 
    ⑤过去进行时 was/were+ being + 过去分词
    如:The new house was being painted when I got home. 
    ⑥过去完成时 had +been+ 过去分词
    如: He told me that the work had been finished. 
    ⑦一般将来时  will +be + 过去分词
    如: The problem will be discussed tomorrow. 
    ⑧ 过去将来时 would/should +be +过去分词
    如:He said that the Christmas tree would be put up soon.
    ⑨情态动词的被动语态
    情态动词+ be +过去分词     
    如:The problem must be solved soon.
    Children should be taught to love animals.

  • 被动语态关注点:
    1. 不及物动词无被动语态。 
    如:happen, break down, come out......
      What will happen in 100 years. 
      The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago. 
    2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。 
    如:write, sell, ride.....
      This pen writes well. 
      This new book sells well. 
    3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带“to”,但变为被动语态时,须加上“to”。 
    例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something 
      see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something 
      A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by. 
      The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss. 
    4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。 
      He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him. 
      He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him. 
      My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father. 
    5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。 
      We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laughed at by us. 
      He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day. 
      The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.
      构成
      be+done.

  • 主动句变为被动句4步骤:
    1、把原主动句中的宾语变为被动句的主语
    2、把动词变为被动形式即be +过去分词,并注意其人称和数随主语的变化,而动词的时态则保持不变。
    3、原主动句的主语如需要则放在by后面以它的宾格形式出现(注代词的宾格),如不需要则可省略。 
    4、其它的成分(定语、状语)不变。
  • 被动语态各时态构成表:

    TENSE

    主动语态

    被动语态

    一般现在时

    be+V.\V.s

    am\is\are+(p.p)

    一般将来时

    will\begoingto\be(about)to+V.

    willbe+(p.p)

    现在进行时

    am\is\are+V.ing

    am\is\are+being+(p.p)

    一般过去时

    ①was\were②V.ed

    was\were+(p.p)

    现在完成时

    have\has+V.p.p

    have\has+been+(p.p)

    过去完成时

    had+V.p.p

    had+been+(p.p)

    过去进行时

    was\were+V.ing

    was\were+being+(p.p)

    情态动词

    情态动词+V.

    情态动词+be+(p.p)
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